Secondary school economics and entrepreneurship education

Theme 2   Entrepreneurship and business economics.

Secondary school seachers.
Researchers and academics.

This presentation arises out of my PhD research study aimed at exploring teaching and learning in secondary school economics in Malta. The underlying conceptual framework for this study is critical realism, which offers an understanding of the world that is real but which may be differently experienced and interpreted by different observers (Bhaskar, 1979; Fletcher, 2017). The research method consisted in interviewing and observing fourteen economics teachers, together with four focus groups interviews with students. Data was analysed by employing thematic analysis (e.g. Braun and Clarke, 2006), with the help of Nvivo software. Entrepreneurship education emerged as a theme in the teachers’ and students’ voices and in the lesson observations. This presentation discusses how secondary school economics education presented opportunities for students to reflect about entrepreneurship through the economics substantive knowledge discussed. I argue that this is one form of powerful knowledge (Young, 2008, 2021) that economics can offer to the young generation. This presentation assists the reflection relating to the teaching and learning of economics and entrepreneurship and what constitutes powerful knowledge in these areas.


Bhaskar, R. (1979). The possibility of naturalism. Brighton: Harvester Press.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Fletcher. A.J. (2017). Applying critical realism in qualitative research: Methodology meets method, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(2), 181-194.

Young, M. (2008). Bringing Knowledge Back in: From Social Constructivism to Social Realism in the Sociology of Education. London: Routledge.

Young, M. (2021). Powerful knowledge or the powers of knowledge: A dialogue with history educators. In A. Chapman (Ed.), Knowing History in Schools: Powerful Knowledge and the Powers of Knowledge. (pp.234-259). London: UCL Press.

Presented by: EMANUEL MIZZI (1, 1)

Lecture (20 min)

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